Understanding how others function is a first step in working with them. Organizations consist of people who differ from one another on almost every dimension possible. Diversity certainly is a challenge that is here to stay.

We always can count on Jung, Myers and Briggs, and Keirsey and Bates. But still we need to keep in mind that we are all changing and all that test gives us a frame. People behavior and nature is like unritten book. Jung’s work formed the basis of the later work of Myers and Briggs; the work of Myers and Briggs, in turn, formed the basis of Keirsey and Bates’ work. The four dimensions of personality that provide the structure for these three theories. These dimensions are extraverts/introverts, sensors/intuitors, thinkers/feelers, and judgers/perceivers. 


Jung’s Theory of Type

Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist whose theory of psychological types  helps people to recognize and to understand basic personality differences. In essence, this theory describes people’s ranges of orientations to perceiving (sensing versus intuitive), interpreting (thinking versus feeling), and responding (extraversion versus introversion). By becoming aware of these basic differences, people can better understand others’ motivations and behaviors and can expand tolerance and respect for those whose styles are different.

Jung recognized that people make clear choices from infancy on as to how they use their minds. Although each person has some of each kind of orientation, he or she generally favors one type over the other. Furthermore, types seem to be distributed randomly with regard to sex, class, level of education, and so on.

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

In the early 1940s, Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katherine Briggs, began to explore ways to use Jung’s theories to explain personality differences. With World War II as a backdrop for their work, the women saw peace in the world as the ultimate goal of understanding personality types. Their paper-and-pencil instrument for determining personality type became known as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI is based on a psychometric questionnaire whose results seem to determine accurately a person’s viewpoint and style of behavior in all aspects of work and personal interaction. Use of the MBTI is extremely widespread; to date, several million Americans have taken it. The instrument also has been translated into Japanese, Spanish, and French, helping many people around the world to understand and accept themselves and others.

Using Jung’s theories as a starting point, Myers and Briggs designated three sets of letter pairs: E/I (extraversion/introversion), S/N (sensing/intuitive), and T/F (thinking/feeling). To these they added a fourth letter-pair set, J/P (judging/perceiving). The MBTI classifies each person in one of sixteen personality types, based on that person’s preferences for one aspect from each of the four sets of letter pairs.

The Keirsey and Bates Sorter

David Keirsey and Marilyn Bates (1984), in their book Please Understand Me, use the same four dimensions that are found in the MBTI to outline four “temperaments.” They define temperament to be “that which places a signature or thumb print on each of one’s actions, making it recognizably one’s own”. Temperament is based first on the S/N dimension; differences on this dimension are “the source of the most miscommunication, misunderstanding, vilification, defamation, and denigration” . People with an S (sensing) preference gather information in concrete ways, based on facts in the here-and-now; temperament theory then subdivides them based on how they act on this information
(judging or perceiving). People with an N (intuitive) preference gather information in abstract ways, based on intuition and possibilities; the temperament sorter then subdivides them based on how they make decisions about this information (thinking or feeling). Thus, according to the Keirsey and Bates Sorter, a person is characterized as SJ, SP, NT, or NF.


The dimensions used by Jung, by Myers and Briggs, and by Keirsey and Bates represent tendencies rather than absolute choices. In most situations, a person prefers one approach over another. A person who understands his or her own approach then can use this information to improve communication with others.

Extraverts and Introverts (E and I)

Jung identified two basic “attitude types,” which describe the direction of a person’s interest: extravert and introvert. In the context of personality typology, an extravert is a person whose energy source is the external world of people and things, whereas an introvert is a person whose energy source is the internal world of ideas.

An extravert generally appears friendly and easy to know; he or she tends to think aloud and to express emotions openly. An extravert often acts first and reflects later. In contrast, an introvert is most productive in private and tends to reflect first and act later. An introvert generally internalizes emotions and appears to be less self-revealing and to need a great deal of privacy. Contrary to popular notions, however, a healthy
extravert may need time alone and a healthy introvert may have highly developed communication skills.

Sensors and Intuitors (S and N)

The S/N preference concerns the mental function of how a person takes in data from
the outside world. The letter “S” is used for sensing, and the letter “N” is used to represent intuition.

A person is a sensor if he or she takes in information in parts, noticing fine details by means of the five senses. A sensor is a very practical individual who wants, trusts, and remembers facts. He or she is highly attuned to details and is usually very orderly and organized. For this person, learning is a linear process in which data are collected sequentially and facts are believed only when experience bears them out. A sensor values order and truth; often he or she is a hard worker who values perspiration more than inspiration. A sensor enjoys the present moment, takes directions easily, and may be most comfortable with tasks that are highly detailed and require repetition.

In contrast, a person is an intuitor if he or she perceives a situation in its entirety rather than piecemeal. An intuitor has a global perspective and is often described as living by a sixth sense. He or she is imaginative and is always anticipating future events. An intuitor looks primarily for relationships and patterns in the information taken in. He or she is an innovator who believes in and excels in hunches, visions, and dreams. An intuitor is adept at long-range planning and can recognize all of the complexities in a given situation.

Taken to the extreme, the sensing function causes a person to miss the forest for the trees, and the intuitive function causes a person to miss the trees for the forest.

Thinkers and Feelers (T and F)

Once data have been collected, decisions often must be made, a process that is determined by one’s T/F preference. The letter “T” represents thinking, and the letter “F” represents feeling. Although this preference is based on how logic is used, thinking should not be equated with intelligence or intellectualism, nor should feelings be equated with emotion.

A thinker processes data in a formalized, linear fashion and can be described as logical. He or she uses an impersonal basis to make decisions in an exacting, structured, analytical manner. The thinker’s actions are apt to be deliberate and based on cause and effect. A thinker is ruled by the intellect and will fight for principles; such a person is drawn to jobs that do not depend heavily on interpersonal dynamics.

In contrast, a feeler makes decisions based on a process that more closely reflects personal values or concerns for others. He or she looks at extenuating circumstances rather than rigid laws. A feeler often is artistic and sensitive to the opinions and values of others; consequently, he or she is best suited to a job that requires strong communication and interpersonal skills.

Judgers and Perceivers (J and P)

Jung’s discussion of temperament actually dealt only with the S/N, T/F, and E/I preferences, emphasizing that each person has preferred styles of perceiving and judging that are best done in either the outer or inner world. Myers and Briggs built from Jung’s theory and created a fourth pair of opposites for the MBTI, concerning the style in which a person lives life (J/P). The J/P preference represents the weight that each of the mental functions (S/N and T/F) is given. In general terms, this preference refers to lifestyle.

A judger prefers situations that are orderly and well planned; and the judging function is dominant in the decision-making dimension, regardless of whether the person is a thinker or a feeler. Such a person prefers a decided, settled path and tends to be neat and orderly. A judger must know priorities and works best when his or her attention is dedicated to one assignment. He or she likes to be prepared for any situation, runs life by making and adhering to lists, thrives on deadlines, and always sees a task through to the end. However, because of a strong desire for stability, a judger may find change troubling.

A perceiver, on the other hand, lives life in an open, fluid, and spontaneous fashion. The perceiving function is dominant in his or her actions, regardless of whether the person is a sensor or an intuitor. A perceiver sees life’s possibilities and is always ready for the unexpected. He or she remains open to sudden changes and is comfortable with letting things happen by chance; this person adapts well to changing environments and usually enjoys being given a variety of tasks.


Jungian Functional Types

Jung categorized people according to the psychological functions of thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition; each of these functions then could be found in either extraverted or introverted individuals. In this way, Jung recognized eight functional types: extraverted sensing, extraverted intuitive, extraverted thinking, extraverted feeling, introverted sensing, introverted intuitive, introverted thinking, and introverted feeling.

The Myers-Briggs Types

The sixteen four-letter type indicators that classify types in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) consist of one letter representing a trait from each pair. Thus, the possible sixteen combinations are ISTJ, ESTJ, INTJ, ENTJ, ISTP, ESTP, INTP, ENTP, ISFJ, ESFJ, INFJ, ENFJ, ISFP, ESFP, INFP, and ENFP. Each of these types has certain characteristics and preferences that distinguish it from other types.

ISTJ (Introverted-Sensing-Thinking-Judging). The ISTJ type is dependable and decisive. Attention to detail, combined with dependability, draws a person of this type to careers in which he or she can work alone and can focus on results, objective thinking, and procedures.

ESTJ (Extraverted-Sensing-Thinking-Judging). People of this type perceive through their senses rather than through their intuition and can be described as practical and oriented toward facts. Because of their focus on visible, measurable results, this type is ideally suited to organizing and directing the production of products.

INTJ (Introverted-Intuitive-Thinking-Judging). The INTJ type is naturally good at brainstorming and excels at turning theory into practice. People of this type often choose careers that allow them to create and apply technology, and they often rise rapidly in an organization because of their abilities to focus on both the overall picture and the details of a situation.

ENTJ (Extraverted-Intuitive-Thinking-Judging). The ENTJ type uses intuition rather than sensing to explore possibilities and relationships between and among things. People of this type have a strong desire to lead and tend to rise quickly to upper-management levels.

ISTP (Introverted-Sensing-Thinking-Perceiving). An ISTP type excels in technical and scientific fields because he or she uses sensing and thinking to analyze and organize data. Not wasting time is a key value for a person of this type, who tends to become bored by tasks that are too routine or too open ended.

ESTP (Extraverted-Sensing-Thinking-Perceiving). The ESTP type makes decisions based on logic more than on feelings. Such a person prefers to learn as he or she goes along, as opposed to becoming familiar with an entire process in advance. An
ESTP type has excellent entrepreneurial abilities but quickly tires of routine administrative details.

INTP (Introverted-Intuitive-Thinking-Perceiving). The INTP person uses
intuition to explore possibilities, preferring new ideas and theories to facts. This person’s love of problem solving means that he or she is well suited to research and other scholarly endeavors.

ENTP (Extraverted-Intuitive-Thinking-Perceiving). The ENTP type is attracted to work that allows the exercise of ingenuity. Such a person learns best by discussing and challenging and has little tolerance for tedious details.

ISFJ (Introverted-Sensing-Feeling-Judging). An ISFJ type combines an ability to use facts and data with sensitivity to others. Although uncomfortable in ambiguous situations, a person of this type is a hard worker and prefers work in which he or she can be of service to others, both within the organization and outside it.

ESFJ (Extraverted-Sensing-Feeling-Judging). The ESFJ type is probably the most sociable of all types and thus is highly effective in dealing with others. He or she often leans toward a career that serves others, such as teaching or the ministry.

INFJ (Introverted-Intuitive-Feeling-Judging). The INFJ type has a natural gift for facilitating groups. Although interpersonal interactions are important to a person of this type, he or she can be comfortable with any work that allows opportunities to grow and to learn.

ENFJ (Extraverted-Intuitive-Feeling-Judging). An ENFJ person is a born leader who places highest priority on people. This preference, combined with his or her strong verbal-communication skills, makes the ENFJ type ideally suited for motivating others.

ISFP (Introverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceiving). People whose type is ISFP excel at tasks that require long periods of concentration and have senses that are keenly tuned. They prefer to express themselves in concrete, nonverbal ways and are especially inclined toward the fine arts.

ESFP (Extraverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceiving). An ESFP type uses sensing and feeling to live in the here-and-now and is most challenged by activities that are new and require some special effort. He or she prefers work that provides instant gratification, an opportunity to work with others, and avenues for learning and growing.

INFP (Introverted-Intuitive-Feeling-Perceiving). People of this type are best described as idealists; they value integrity, hard work, and concern for others. Although they are adaptable to most work situations, they are best suited for careers that involve service to others.

ENFP (Extraverted-Intuitive-Feeling-Perceiving). The ENFP type is most interested in finding new solutions to problems and is attracted to work that involves people. Such a person tends to be impatient with rules and procedures and serves better as a mentor for employees than as a boss.

Keirsey and Bates Temperaments

The Keirsey and Bates Sorter classifies people by temperament rather than by type. Based on Jungian definitions, the sorter lists the four temperaments as sensing perceiver (SP), sensing judger (SJ), intuitive thinker (NT), or intuitive feeler (NF). Sensing perceivers and sensing judgers each make up between 35 and 40 percent of the population, while intuitive thinkers and intuitive feelers each constitute between 10 and 15 percent.

Sensing Perceiver (SP). An SP, or sensing perceiver, constantly seeks adventure and freedom and is open to whatever is new and changing. This person lives for the moment and makes an excellent negotiator. In a work setting, he or she may deal well with vendors and may be useful in keeping the staff abreast of new products and new releases. Such a person often is known as a troubleshooter who likes to resolve crises and to rally the support of others in solving a problem. Hot-line programs are often well served by people with SP temperaments.

Sensing Judger (SJ). A sensing judger (SJ) believes in rules, regulations, and rituals. He or she works best in a formalized, structured situation and often is well qualified to institute the structure that is needed in the workplace. A sensing judger would make a good librarian, inventory controller, scheduler, or administrator. He or she thrives on setting standards, whether in reference to resource selection or the day-to-day operating procedures of a department.

Intuitive Thinker (NT). A person who wants to understand, control, explain, and predict events is an intuitive thinker (NT). He or she is an intellectual purist and a self-motivated learner. An intuitive thinker can best serve an organization as a visionary and planner. He or she is a determined learner and will pursue something until it is mastered. An intuitive thinker makes an excellent system designer because of his or her
conceptual ability and may be well suited to customer support because of a need to strive for resolution. Newsletter production may also be a good outlet for an intuitive thinker’s skills.

Intuitive Feeler (NF). An intuitive feeler (NF) is enthusiastic and often has strong communication and interaction skills. Such a person often excels at public relations and can be effective as a liaison to other companies or departments. An intuitive feeler also often makes a good teacher, especially on the elementary level, because of his or her patience and understanding. Such a person is excellent at setting the atmosphere necessary for quality learning and training.

Being typed, therefore, should not limit people but rather uncover their possibilities. Living or working with a person of the opposite type can generate friction, but understanding may help opposites to accept and to take advantage of each other’s differences.

And keep in mind : It’s easy to judge. It’s more difficult to understand. Through judging, we separate. Throught understanding we grow.

Have a great day,




Champions aren’t made in gyms. Champions are made from something they have deep inside them-a desire, a dream, a vision. They have to have the skill, and the will. But the will must be stronger than the skill.”― Muhammad Ali

14203239_10205800962457331_7350841119475870421_n An organization is an intangible thing, an invisible repository of will and competence; organizations exist in the thin ether of our actions and values. But there is nothing abstract about the people who make them up. They dream, worry, attend meetings, call on customers, and phone home. You can weigh them, poll them, and clock them. It makes sense that when an organization learns, the locus of that learning is the individual and groups of individuals.

The term “personal mastery” may just be another way of saying “learning,” but I  must be clear about the kind of learning I  mean. It is not just the accumulation of technical and functional information, but the wise and beneficial use of that information. This is an important qualification, because it introduces the issues of self-knowledge and personal values. Here is where we find the answer to the riddle of the learning organization and the reason that the learning organization (as a whole, functioning entity) is so important.

Transcending Our Inherent and Learned Limitations

  “The last thing we learn about ourselves is our effect.”- Ben Kizer, one of the great civic leaders .  Personal mastery entails honing our effectiveness in the world through brave self-observation. It also involves creating a high-tension energy field in one’s life by facing the truth of current reality and boldly envisioning something different: a future of one’s choosing. The creative tension is where the juice of mastery comes from.

Through the ages, sages have testified to the virtues of the examined life and lamented a mind left untended. The following are the observations of three of them.

Those who know much about others may be smart, but those who understand themselves are even wiser.—Lao Tsu

You could drop a leaflet or a Hubbard squash on the head of any person in any land and you would almost certainly hit a brain that was whirling in small, conventional circles. There is something about the human mind that keeps it well within the confines of the parish, and only one outlook in a million is nonparochial.—E.B. Whit

I truly   believe that “personal mastery” is as good a name for the lesson as any. Liberating ourselves from the conditioned, automatic responses to life that endlessly loop us into the same frustrations is one of the hardest things that we can ever attempt. Accepting the need for this is a recognition of what it means to be human. Dealing with this reality is always worth the effort, because even the smallest successes are immediately rewarded with proportionally greater personal freedom. This, in turn, leads to greater creativity, productivity, satisfaction, joy, and expanded life possibilities.

Although the task is difficult, people regularly accomplish even greater goals. Changing one’s world view, says Livingston, is actually easier than overcoming chemical dependence, and people break such deadly habits all the time.

The Effect in Organizations

One person inside an organization ( a trainer) on the trail of personal mastery would be good news for that organization. Think of the ripple effect. Two people would be even better, and the implications of ten people struggling with the ways of personal mastery are even more exciting because of the dynamics of critical mass. The cumulative rate at which individuals within the organization change themselves in pursuit of personal mastery defines the rate at which the organization can change.

Personal mastery is very personal, revolving as it does around the unique mechanisms of the mind. It is challenging enough at the personal level. In the organization, the challenge is compounded not just by numbers but by the fact that no one can choose the pursuit of personal mastery for us; we must choose it for ourselves. Nevertheless, it is a challenge that people and organizations must face if they are to survive individually and collectively. Organizational leaders who have the courage to confront this issue will need all the help they can get from the training profession.

The challenge can be described as follows:

  1. Because of the rapidity of technological change and global competition, becoming a learning organization is now the real ante of doing business.
  2. The pursuit of personal mastery by individuals is the essence of the learning organization.

Unfortunately, the practice of personal mastery by an organization’s employees remains a taboo subject for management. A manager who addresses an employee with, “Excuse me, but I think you need to improve your personal mastery” will likely be as welcome as a religious pamphleteer at the door on Saturday morning. As Peter Drucker says, managers have no business messing with their employees’ minds. I must disagree with Drucker. Although I believe that organizations should not stick their noses into the private lives of their employees, I do not think that you can separate the person’s work from the person.

The notion that we have a work life and a personal life is a dangerous illusion. Each of us has one mind, one body, and one spirit, and we take them with us wherever we go. We do a lot of messing with one another’s minds; it may constitute the majority of human affairs. Every time a manager says “Thank you” or “You did it wrong again” to an employee, the manager is messing with the employee’s mind. Every bonus paid, every new team assembled, every reorganization effort is an exercise in messing with minds. The challenge, again, is to do it responsibly.

By practicing personal mastery as individuals, trainers and other HRD professionals will make their practice more forceful than any sermons they could ever preach on the subject. Happily, the discipline of it will almost inevitably confine one to constructive, ethical interaction with others.

The question is “How do you pursue personal mastery?”Components of the Discipline

The answer is that the biological and psychological force of habit is so great that you must have a discipline.

The personal-mastery technology I propose (O’Brien & Shook, 1995) rests on four adaptive skills:

Raising consciousness – means not just thinking, but thinking about thinking: noticing and managing the workings of your mind so that your mind will not run away with you like a startled horse.

 Imagining- When you “imagine,” you create a mental picture—the most vivid image you can—of an outcome you desire. It works, and you do it all the time. If you are typical, however, most of the imagining you do goes by the name “worry.” This most common form of imagining leads not to something you want but to something you do not want, and it works depressingly well.

Framing and reframing –  are the foundation of human experience and the essence of personal freedom. They mean interpreting the world, deriving meaning, and assigning significance to the events of life. When the Greek Stoic Epictetus noted two-thousand years ago that it is not the events of life that matter but our opinion of them, he was talking about framing and reframing. You do not have to think about anything in any particular way, but some ways of thinking about things are more helpful than others. Learning to frame and reframe means learning to see things in the most helpful light.

 Integrating new perspectives. –  What we see depends on where we stand. And where we stand—that is, the view of the world our senses present to us—is profoundly influenced by the biases of our families of origin and the hands that fate has dealt us. However, each of us is not stuck with just one world view. We can get new ones any time by learning to integrate the perspectives of others. In this sense, the points of view of other people rank among life’s most priceless gifts.

The Impact of Personal Mastery – It probably is not possible for someone to engage in these activities without impacting events around them, without creating powerful and effective relationships with others. But any words that someone who pursues personal mastery could speak about these things would be pale next to the things themselves. In the story of Pinocchio, it is the master’s love and the behavior of love that brings the puppet to life. It may be that way with personal mastery. Only to the extent that we are willing to step into these practices and give them life do they have the potential to shape our destinies and those of the organizations we form.

All this is a matter of considerable importance to organizational leaders, to trainers, and to organizations. Many organizations currently are trying to change themselves from the outside in, by reengineering new organizational forms into existence in the hope that structure alone equals performance. I  doubt that it does. The catalyst missing from such efforts is the inside-out change offered by personal mastery. I doubt that the best team players can be made by teaching the external strategies of teamwork alone. To be constructive members of a team, people must examine their attitudes about collaborating with others, resolving conflict, coping with mistakes (their own and others’), dealing with anger and fear, and so on. That comes from the never-ending pursuit of personal mastery.

When the leaders of an organization sincerely embrace personal mastery themselves, they will automatically begin shifting the parent-child relationship between management and workers to adult-adult relationships. Although the former is still the dominant organizational paradigm, it is the latter that holds the power to drive truly empowered workers and an organization that is capable of continuous learning and fluid response to a dynamic marketplace.

…Just a few thoughts




proper-preparation-prevents-poor-performanceAfter contracting with clients, assessment is usually the next step in the process. Assessment involves collecting information from the client and others in order to provide the client with feedback. The feedback is then used as a guide in preparing an individualized developmental plan, which provides the foundation for the actual coaching process.

Self-assessment tools (see Exhibit 1) are given to clients so they can better understand themselves and their behavior. Some tools are focused on overall personality or “style,” while others concentrate on a particular aspect of personality, such as how conflict is handled. Various forms of 360-degree feedback provide information about the client from other members of the organization, customers, or partners. (The term “360” refers to feedback from all around the client, from bosses, peers or customers, and below.) The information is gathered through a series of structured interviews or standardized instruments or a combination of both. Once the information is gathered, the coach/trainer summarizes the information, highlights strengths and challenges, and gives feedback to the client. The themes that emerge provide information to the trainer/coach and client on what developmental needs to address during the training engagement. Observation is also useful in the assessment process; the trainer is able to see the client in a real working situation, for example, leading a meeting or making a presentation.

Exhibit 1. Selected Assessment Tools

Self-Assessment Instruments
•   Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

•   I-Speak Your Language

•   Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI)

•   FIRO-B

•   BarOn EQ-i

•   DiSC Classic Profile

360-Degree Feedback Tools
•   CheckPoint

•   Profilor by Personal Decisions Incorporated (PDI)

•   Individual interviews

•   Staff meetings

•   Other meetings

•   Presentations

The tariner can then provide direct feedback while the event is occurring or immediately afterward.

Internal HR professionals can be helpful to external tariners/coaches because they know what instruments and assessment tools the company routinely uses as part of an overall development program and which ones the person being coached has already completed. Coaches will not want to duplicate the company’s assessment process, but may want to provide some additional tools beyond what the company provides.

In the next few sections, I explain some of the tools and their usefulness to trainers. I address self-assessment tools, 360-degree feedback instruments, interviews, and observation.

Self-Assessment Tools –  are useful in pointing out the client’s specific behaviors, interpersonal needs, and styles.Trainers decide which tools they want the client to complete, based either on information from the initial interview with the client or on a predetermined set of instruments that are given to every client. My list is built on the instruments that I currently use. However, there are many more instruments that other tariners use.

The FIRO-B measures interpersonal needs in three areas: inclusion, control, and affection. For each of the three interpersonal needs, the FIRO-B provides a measure of how much each need is expressed or wanted by the client. The results show the various ways the client interacts with people. This tool, in combination with information from other assessment tools, can help the trainer and the client identify patterns of behavior that comprise the client’s leadership style.

Two surveys of personal styles that are based on the personality typology developed by Carl Jung are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and I-Speak Your Language.

The MBTI is better known and more comprehensive. The MBTI reveals the natural preferences of an individual or a team for focusing energy, gathering information, making decisions, and orienting to the external environment. I-Speak Your Language measures the relative likelihood of using each of four basic personality styles: Intuitor, Thinker, Feeler, and Sensor. Generally, a coach would choose one or the other to give to a client, not both.

The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI) is used for understanding how people deal with conflict. The TKI helps the client discover which of five conflict-handling modes the client prefers to use, which may be overused, and which may be underused. Trainers can help their clients understand their preferred mode(s), the most appropriate uses of each mode, and how to expand their conflict repertoire by increasing their comfort level with least-preferred modes. This tool is easy to administer and takes about fifteen minutes to complete. Certification is not required.

DiSC Classic Profile builds on the work of William Moulton Marston. He theorized that human behavior could be studied based on a person’s actions in either a favorable or a stressful environment. The four dimensions that he identified are Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness. DiSC shows clients their individual behavioral styles and reveals the environment that is most conducive to success. It can be difficult to interpret. Certification is not required, but training is important to fully understand the results.

BarOn EQ-i is the first scientifically validated assessment of emotional intelligence, which can be defined as the capacity to create optimal results professionally and personally through our relationships with others and with ourselves. The assessment is administered online and provides scores for overall emotional intelligence and for five major scales: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Stress Management, Adaptability, and General Mood. There are also scores for fifteen subscales. Links between high emotional intelligence and effective performance have been demonstrated. Emotional intelligence can be learned, and a coach can use the EQ-i results to shape the client’s developmental planning. Certification is needed to understand how to interpret the results.

360-Degree Feedback Instruments . The various 360-degree feedback instruments allow clients’ managers, peers, and direct reports to answer survey questions and provide feedback on the clients’ specific behaviors and skills. Trainers should check to see whether the organization has a current and completed 360-degree instrument for the client. If so, the coach may decide to supplement or update the information by interviewing a small sample of the client’s circle to confirm the client’s leadership style, strengths, and challenges. The information is shared in the feedback phase of coaching. If the client has not completed a 360-degree instrument, coaches usually recommend tools with which they are most familiar or that are best suited for the organization in terms of cost, amount of data, and ease of understanding. There are dozens of 360-degree feedback tools; I am presenting only a small sample.

CheckPoint, by Profiles International, covers seventy specific job skills, which fall into eight major competencies and eighteen skill sets. The survey takes twenty to thirty minutes to complete. The resulting report is colorful and easy to read and understand. The report includes a developmental section that guides the client through specific activities that address developmental needs.

Interviews is my preferred method of collecting 360-degree feedback, as I can gather richer and more comprehensive information. I can easily customize my standard set of questions to reflect the preliminary concerns and issues I have heard from the client’s manager and/or from HR. However, interviews are time-consuming and, when the trainer is external, may not be cost-effective for the organization when multiple clients are involved. Whether the trainer  is external or internal, when multiple clients are in the same department and use one another as peer responders for feedback, interviews may place too great a time burden on the responders.

Observation – Some clients benefit from having their trainers observe them in a meeting or giving a presentation. Trainers can give the clients unbiased opinions and helpful hints on how to improve the style and manner. Trainers and their clients decide which meetings would be useful for the coach to observe. Often they will choose staff meetings that the client leads. Sometimes clients want their tariners/coaches to observe them with customers or with their peers. In the ongoing training  sessions, trainers will sometimes role play difficult situations with their clients. If they have already observed the client in a similar situation, the role play can be geared to highlight the specific behaviors the client needs to improve. Similarly, when trainers help clients prepare for a presentation, there is no more important data than having observed the client giving a previous presentation—whether at a staff meeting or in front of a larger audience.





Meeting-Management Checklist

10441926_10152983679835832_4185977024467487670_nMost of us have learned how to run meetings by osmosis—by watching another person, who, in turn, learned by watching someone else. This method of learning would be valid if the observed processes worked.
The purpose of this article is like suggestions that will help foster the effective management of meetings.
In general  all meetings have specific purposes for being held and specific tasks to be performed by the participants. These meetings are effective only when the participants clearly understand the type of meeting they are holding and then make sure they accomplish the tasks associated with that type of meeting. The different types of meetings conducted in organizations are as follows:
Informational. The purpose of this type of meeting is to disseminate data and facts as well as decisions and policies made by people or groups in the organization senior to those holding the meeting.
Validational. This type of meeting is held to announce a previously made decision. In general the informational flow here is primarily from top to bottom.
Planning/Strategizing. The purpose of the planning/strategizing meeting is the  action plans for the work group in attendance.
Problem Solving/Decision Making. The objective of this type of meeting is also the generation of action plans, but the time factor considered is short (one day to six months), and the focus is on day-to-day business rather than on long-range planning. The conversational flow is from peer to peer or interactional.
Staff Conferences. This type of meeting is held to ensure the progress of action plans generated in planning and problem-solving meetings. Progress reports are provided, a full expression of opinions is solicited, and coordination of disparate actions is achieved. The flow of conversation is from peer to peer and interactional.
Feedback/Evaluation. The purpose of the feedback/evaluation meeting is to assess progress in accordance with the schedules set forth in previous planning and/or problem-solving meetings. Organizational and/or personal performance is the focus.
Training. This type of meeting is held to educate the staff. The goal is to expand the knowledge, improve the skill, or change the behavior/attitudes of the participants so that they will perform in their jobs more effectively.
Celebrational. The celebrational meeting is held so that the participants can enjoy being together, relax, and have a good time.

Let’s have a look what are the kinds of tasks to be performed and those who should perform them for each type of meeting …

Meeting Type Tasks Task Performer
Informational Disseminating information Information holder
Listening Participants
Questioning for clarification Participants
Validational Disseminating decisions Decision maker or a
representative of the
decision maker
Listening Participants
Presenting action assignments Supervisor
Assenting/dissenting Participants
Planning/Strategizing Identifying the problem/issue Decision maker
and Developing data Participants
Problem solving/ Generating alternatives Participants
Decision Making Selecting a solution Decision maker
Planning action Participants
Presenting action assignments Supervisor
Staff Conference Developing data Participants
Identifying progress Decision maker/participants
Identifying the problem/issue Decision maker
Generating alternatives Participants
Selecting a course of action Decision maker
Planning action Participants
Presenting action assignments Supervisor
Feedback/Evaluation Developing data Participants
Identifying the problem/issue Decision maker
Generating alternatives Participants
Selecting a solution Decision maker
Planning action Participants
Presenting action assignments Supervisor
Training Presenting the concept Trainer
Listening Participants
Experimenting Participants
Celebrational (As appropriate) Participants
Tasks to Be Completed In Meetings

Here is a checklist by which the meeting manager can plan and execute a well-designed, properly structured meeting. So what we need? Let’s have a look…

Advance Preparation

  1. Set the agenda and post a meeting notice.
  2. Designate the meeting topic.
  3. Designate the meeting type and the attendees.
  4. Specify expectations.
  • You may also need to:
    Set the activity-level standards.
    Decide on the attendees’ responsibility regarding functional role.
    Identify resource people.
  1. Assign any necessary prework.
  2. Establish and secure a base of information.
  3. Make the logistic arrangements.
  4. Space
  5. Time
  6. Seating
  7. Materials (audiovisual equipment, etc.)

Meeting Dynamics

  1. Opening Phase—Defining the Task
  2. Convene the meeting.
  3. Introduce the participants (if necessary).
  4. Reinforce/change expectations.
  5. Reinforce participation and norms of representation.
  6. Introduce the resource experts.
  7. Identify the problems/issues that will not be dealt with during the meeting.
  8. Present the time schedule.
  9. Middle Phases—Application of Energy and Consolidation
  10. Test issue formation and understanding.
  11. Reiterate the decisions that are made.
  12. Monitor pace.
  13. Closing Phase
  14. Evaluate the progress that has been made.
  15. Assign tasks.
  16. Establish a means for dealing with unfinished business (such as
    including it in the agenda for the next meeting).

Follow-Up Documents to Be Produced

  1. Minutes
  2. Action-plan summaries
  3. Individual action-assignment sheets
  4. Action-review reminders
  5. Completion reminders
  6. Appreciation/recognition notes

And of course the meeting should start and finish on time. Know with who you will have meeting. Keep in mind the 5p -proper preparation prevents poor performance.


Have a great day,